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xga       HISTORY OF WESTERN EDUCATION

became models for a great many more, and his methods were
diffused far and wide by the work of the multitude of teachers
who had been his pupils. When he died in 1560, his system
was wellnigh universal in the cities of Germany. Its general
character may be illustrated from the Lehrplan of the Eisleben
school. In this, as in all his later plans, there were two out-
standing features: the work was arranged for three classes or
stages through which the pupils advanced according to their
proficiency, and Latin grammar and literature were the chief
subjects of study. The first class was intended for beginners.
The pupils were introduced to the rudiments of Latin by means
of a simple manual of extracts, -ffisop's fables, the dialogues of
Mosellanus, and Cato's verses on morals, the object being the
acquisition of sufficient vocabulary for them to speak in Latin.
In the second class, the serious study of grammar began. " Those
people who disapprove of getting up rules, and think grammar
can be better learned in some other way," says Melanchthon,
" make a very bad mistake with regard to boys' studies." For
this reason grammar was the main concern at this stage. A few
authors like Terence and Virgil were read, not for their own sakes,
but for the purpose of providing illustrations of grammatical
rules and to increase vocabulary. Only when the learners had
mastered their grammar did they pass on to the third class, where
they studied the elements of dialectic and rhetoric, and read the
histories of Livy and Salust, the poems of Virgil, Horace and Ovid,
and the oratorical and ethical works of Cicero. Those boys of
good capacity who had a fair knowledge of Latin were allowed
to begin Greek and Hebrew, and possibly also mathematics and
the cycle of the arts. Later ordinances show some departures
from the Eisleben scheme. Thus in the plan for a Latin school
in the Saxon Visitation Articles of 1528 he prescribed a more
restricted programme of studies, probably because he had in view
a course for younger pupils. " The teachers," he enjoined,
" shall be careful to teach the children only Latin, not German,
nor Greek, nor Hebrew, as some have formerly done, who burden
the poor children with a diversity which is not only unprofitable
but harmful." Another difference was the greater emphasis on
grammar. In the Eisleben plan, it was mainly taught in the second
class: here it figured in all three. The beginners had to learn
Donatus, the second class read ^Esop, Mosellanus, Erasmus,